Background: Type II diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder caused by inadequate insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells to compensate for insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, which leads microvascular and macrovascular complications. Novel treatment strategies for the management of insulin resistance and associated metabolic syndromes, plant based medicines contributing much with minimal side effects like lactic acidosis.
Objective: As Insulin resistance and associated metabolic syndrome contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, we investigated whether methanolic extract of whole plant Leucas cephalotes (MELC) plays any role in preventing type-2 diabetes mellitus and associated metabolic syndrome in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods: The MELC was prepared by solvent extraction procedure. Rat pups of age 5 days were divided into 4 groups, with 6 animals in each. Group-I pups served as vehicle control and received 1% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC), Group-II served as diabetic control and was treated only with single dose of streptozotocin (80mg/kg, i.p), Group-III & Group-IV served as test groups were treated with MELC at doses of 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg respectively for about 45 days after single dose administration of STZ (80mg/kg, i.p). On 30th and 45th day, blood samples were collected from all animals and levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, uric acid, Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S), triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in plasma were estimated.
Results: The plasma fasting glucose levels were found to be significantly (p<0.001) elevated in single dose streptozotocin treated diabetic control than vehicle control. However, in low dose and high dose test groups, fasting glucose levels, fasting insulin levels, insulin resistance, all the biochemical parameters associated with metabolic syndrome such as fasting insulin values, Triglyceride, Total cholesterol, H2S and Uric acid levels were significantly (p<0.01and p<0.001) decreased after chronic administration of MELC for 45 days and the decrease was more prominent with higher dose.
Conclusions: The present investigation reveals that MELC administration shows significant effect on insulin resistance and associated metabolic syndrome in a dose dependent manner. So, hereby the beneficial action of MELC on human type-II diabetes may be suggested.
Keywords: Leucas cephalotes; Insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; Streptozotocin; Type-2 Diabetes mellitus.