A Review on Childhood Obesity
Keywords:Childhood obesity, pediatric obesity, causes, consequences, treatment
Obesity is a condition characterised by excess accumulation of fat in the body. Childhood obesity is a state in which a child is remarkably overweight for his or her age and height. Childhood obesity is defined as a BMI greater than or equal to 95th percentile for children and teens of same age and sex. Childhood obesity is caused due to a complex interaction between number of factors including genetic, environmental, ecological, socio-cultural, and psychological factors. Clinical evaluation is done to identify the cause of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. The evaluation consists of physical examination and complete history examination. Childhood obesity is associated with a number of consequences including immediate health issues and future risks. A staged approach is recommended in the treatment of obesity. initial management is carried out in primary care with focus on healthy dietary habits and increase physical activity. Those not showing response to primary care interventions or having signiﬁcant health risks should be managed by a multidisciplinary team with expertise in childhood obesity. Pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery is considered if there is no response to weight management.
KEYWORDS: Childhood obesity, pediatric obesity, causes, consequences, treatment