Validation Status and Recent Advances for the Quantification of 3-Nitrotyrosine as a Biomarker of Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Keywords:3-Nitrotyrosine; Biomarkers; Rheumatoid arthritis; Oxidative/nitrosative stress; Mass spectrometry.
Biomarkers have recently been utilized to screen, detect, and diagnose illnesses. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of several autoimmune-related disorders that could benefit from more accurate and validated biomarkers. According to many meta-analysis studies and clinical trials, oxidative/nitrosative stress and RA activity alter in the same way. Therefore, oxidative biomarkers such as 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) may be utilized to evaluate the disease activity. Due to the high complexity of proteins in the matrix of interest and the analytical procedures required for robust quantification, 3-NT is still in its early phases for comprehensive validation and clinical application. Mass spectrometry-based techniques are particularly suitable for the quantification of 3-NT, although they still require more advances for their transformation from biomedical research setting to clinical use. This review will examine the qualification and clinical reliability of 3-NT at first, followed by the validation status of existing mass spectrometry-based methods and other novel techniques, that have received a lot of interest but haven’t been applied yet in RA.
Keywords: 3-Nitrotyrosine; Biomarkers; Rheumatoid arthritis; Oxidative/nitrosative stress; Mass spectrometry.